mercredi 13 février 2013


We will study the Counter Reformation, the main events, motives, and who were the leaders what were the consequences for the Catholic Church and
Christian faith. The Counter Reformation was reaction from the Catholic Church and the Reformation ideas and criticisms propagated by Martin Luther .. However, currently, Many historians have questioned the emphasis that gave the movement opposition to Protestantism rather than the movement of renewal
within the Church itself.

Those who defend this questioning, suggest, even, that the movement of restoration of the Church in the first century XVI, is called the Catholic Reformation. Anyway, the Counter Reformation (or Catholic Reformation) had
shares in two directions. On one side were strengthened actions aimed
prevent the spread of Protestant ideas or calls "Heresies". And on the other, measures were taken in order to infuse the clergy and reorganization of administrative structures.

Who has always been ahead of the Counter Reformation were the popes. Those who stood out were Pope Paul III (1534-1549), Pope Paul IV
(1555-1559), Pope Pius V (1566-1572) and Pope Shale V (1585-1590).
Among the main measures, we can highlight: the approval of the Order of
Jesuits, the Council of Trent (1545 - 1563), the Inquisition and the Index (list
works prohibited).

The Order of the Jesuits or Society of Jesus was founded in 1534 by
Spanish military Ignatius of Loyola. The Jesuits themselves as soldiers
Church and initially had a goal and engaged missionary
to charity. Over time, went on to found and manage seminars
and colleges.

In 1540. Pope Paul III by the Bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae
confirmed the approval of the Order, with a limit of 60 members. The order
survived and prospered on the basis of marriage and hierarchy, for which the
discipline became the key word: The Society of Jesus was born and spread in
sixteenth century the four continents under the rule of writing.

The moment the first dozen "Companions" put himself at the service of the pope, it was understood that the dispersion could threaten their
union and to remain united in Roman Catholic Church, The Institute was born. In the Constitutions cared Santo Ignatius of dedicating one of ten parts, the eighth, "The aid that you shared with them to unite your head
among themselves ".

In the first paragraph of this part placed
that the difficulty of union members with
head and are scattered between faithful and unfaithful
should rely on several grants,

The link between inferiors and superiors through obedience (number 659),
encouragement of "esprit the body", the uniformity of life and doctrine and
combat divisions (numbers 663-665 and 671-672), the so-called "union
of spirits "and constant communication through letters (numbers
662 and 673-676), were prescribed by Loyola as responses to the challenge
dispersion (Loyola, 1963, pp.561-563).

In the process of colonization, the Society of Jesus was then responsible
- Not only in Brazil - the creation of schools for the children of
landowning elites and the conversion of native populations.
Another measure taken by the Church during the Counter Reformation
was to convene a meeting to regulate ecclesiastical doctrine.

The council called by Pope Paul III, in Trento, Italy, became
one of the most important religious assemblies of the Catholic Church. Their
Work continued until the year 1563. After its completion was presented
a set of decisions to ensure the unity of the Catholic faith
and ecclesiastical discipline.

Among those decisions is a reaffirmation of some points of doctrine
Catholic such as human salvation through faith and good works. The Council
Trent also recognized the Latin version of the Bible, prepared
in the fourth century by St. Jerome Catholic as the official text; defined the
seven sacraments; determined to create workshops for training
priests, celibacy confirmed, and strengthened the authority of the pope.

The Counter Reformation revived the Inquisition - the name given to a court in
Church in the thirteenth century. It is known that since the twelfth century, the Church has established practices to monitor, investigate and punish heresies. With the Reform movement, Church improved research methods, adopting torture as a method of obtaining confessions.

In the Iberian Peninsula, the Inquisition was dedicated to investigate minorities
ethnic, especially, Jews and Muslims. Elsewhere, it persecuting adherents of local religions, accused of heresy, witchcraft or connections with the devil. Some scientists have suffered at the hands of the inquisitors Eg, Nicolaus Copernicus and Miguel Servet. attempting to overwhelm the rebels who eventually became ineffective and requiring of the most important measures.

In summary, the Counter Reformation was a movement of the Church
Catholic, in search of survival, an attempt to adapt to the demands of changing times, strained by the opposition triggered by Protestants. However, this movement degenerated into violence and the Council of Trent, in general, served only to reaffirm the old ideas of the Church.